Only a small fraction of requests made by law enforcement download phone spy telephone recording system officials to Facebook, Google and Twitter for users’ identities or to block logiciel espion telephone spy content originate from Africa, but there is cause logiciel espion telephone spy to worry.
Facebook, whose popularity across Africa is growing telephone spy ebay exponentially, lists Botswana, Egypt, Ivory Coast, South spy equipment telephone recorders Africa, and Uganda among the countries that requested users’ telephone spy ebay details in the first half of 2013. Meanwhile, last year saw seven African telephone spy gratuit countries ask Google to remove content compared to only one request from the continent spy equipment telephone recorders – by Libya – in 2010 and 2011. The beauty is that most of those requests telephone spy ebay were rejected.
No African country made a request for user account information either spy equipment telephone recorders to Google or Twitter in the first half of 2013.
In the first half of 2013, Botswana made three requests spy espion telephone to Facebook related to seven users. Egypt spy espion telephone had eight requests regarding 11 accounts, the Ivory spyarsenal telephone spy full Coast lodged four requests, Uganda one request and South spyarsenal telephone spy full Africa 14 requests on nine users. All requests from Africa were denied.
Table 1: Facebook Data Requests (By Author from Facebook Global Government Requests telephone spy ebay Report)
|United States of America
||11,000 – 12,000
||20,000 – 21,000
Eight African countries have made at least one content telephone spy ebay removal request to Google since 2010. Djibouti’s 2012 request telephone spy gratuit to block YouTube videos containing the movie Innocence spy espion telephone of Muslims on the grounds of “religious offense” was rejected telephone spy ebay. But a similar request by Egypt was temporarily complied logiciel espion telephone spy with, because of the “difficult circumstances” in this country at the time.
Meanwhile, a Kenyan request to remove content spy espion telephone from blogger, arising out of a court order in a defamation case, was rejected. The Island download phone spy telephone recording system nation of Mauritius made two content removal requests in the first telephone spy ebay half of 2012. Both were for reasons of defamation; both were rejected. Madagascar’s two requests were court-mandated download phone spy telephone recording system on defamation grounds but Google accepted only one. Sierra Leone spy equipment telephone recorders made one request regarding 60 items on Youtube which it wanted telephone spy ebay blocked as they portrayed or promoted violence. Google spy equipment telephone recorders declined the request, which was made by executive not court order spy equipment telephone recorders.
In the first half of 2012, South Africa had three spy equipment telephone recorders court-ordered removal requests related to 11 items and Google telephone spy ebay fully complied. In the second half of 2012, Pretoria made three court telephone spy ebay ordered requests related to eight items and 33% was complied download phone spy telephone recording system with. All South African requests were related to defamation.
Previous Google reports show that in the period July – December 2010, Libya telephone spy ebay made 68 requests for a total of 203 items to be removed from Youtube. Of these requests telephone spy gear, 31% were complied with, either by some or all of the content being removed. In the subsequent spy equipment telephone recorders six months, Libya’s two requests regarding five items spy espion telephone were denied. All of Libya’s requests were not backed by a court order
telephone spy gadgets
South Sudan, the continent’s youngest nation, is the only African logiciel espion telephone spy country that made a user information request to Twitter between July and December 2012. Juba’s spyarsenal telephone spy full request was denied.
A Catalogue of Infringements
While only a handful of African countries are making telephone spy ebay these requests, there is nonetheless evidence telephone spy ebay of a worrying trend, in which African countries are taking spy equipment telephone recorders both legal and non-legal measures to curtail the freedoms of individuals download phone spy telephone recording system to express themselves on the internet.
The last year has seen a spiral of activity against online freedom of expression telephone spy ebay in numerous African countries. In fact, 2013 might go down as a record year in terms telephone spy gear of curtails on internet rights on the continent.
Gambia has passed a law under which those who publish “false news” online about the government can be handed a 15 year jail term and fined up to US$90,000. Meanwhile, Zambia president Michael Sata’s government in July blocked access to the Zambian Watchdog website, accusing it of promoting hate speech. Two journalists arrested on suspicion of working with the online publishers were due to appear in court. Another website, Zambia Reports, was blocked too. Some observers said blocking the websites was part of the government’s campaign to silence independent critics.
Next door in Zimbabwe, security agencies spent spyarsenal telephone spy full several weeks in the run-up to the July 2013 general elections telephone spy ebay looking for ‘Baba Jukwa’ telephone spy ebay, whose Facebook page published popular exposes of the excesses of President telephone spy gratuit Robert Mugabe’s government. Three weeks before election logiciel espion telephone spy day, there were reports Mr. Mugabe’s machinery had staked a US$300 spy equipment telephone recorders,000 bounty to unearth the identity of the whistleblower as it moved to block telephone spy gratuit access to the site.
There have also been cases of bloggers charged in court telephone spy ebay in Kenya and others sought by authorities spy equipment telephone recorders over their Facebook, blogger and Twitter posts, amidst spy equipment telephone recorders concerns that authorities were infringing citizens’ right spy equipment telephone recorders to free expression. The country also asked internet intermediaries to monitor telephone spy gratuit their traffic for messages deemed “inflammatory” or “divisive” telephone spy ebay in a move some observers believed could be an invasion of privacy. Kenya spy for telephone has also ordered the blocking of access to some websites, such as Mashada telephone spy ebay.
Burundi – always a high-flying culprit in clamping on free expression spy equipment telephone recorders – in May ordered the online newspaper www spy equipment telephone recorders.iwacu-burundi.org to block readers’ comments for 30 days, after accusing it of publishing comments that violated media logiciel espion telephone spy law on “national unity, public order and security spy equipment telephone recorders, inciting ethnic hatred, defending criminal activity and insulting download phone spy telephone recording system the head of state.”
Perhaps more than any other country in Africa, Ethiopia download phone spy telephone recording system regularly blocks websites, undertakes surveillance telephone spy gratuit of websites and social media, and charges journalists telephone spy ebay over content published offline and online. In May 2013, the Supreme Court telephone spy gratuit upheld the conviction and 18-year prison sentence spy equipment telephone recorders for journalist and blogger Eskinder Nega spy espion telephone, convicted last year of “terrorism acts” related to his writing. The state-run telecom spyarsenal telephone spy full monopoly Ethiopia Telecom has for many years been used to filter content download phone spy telephone recording system and hundreds of websites remain blocked. These include blogs spy equipment telephone recorders and websites of a number of recently convicted individuals, news organisations telephone spy ebay, political parties, bloggers, and international organisations.
In Uganda, where authorities have in the past ordered internet logiciel espion telephone spy service providers to block access to certain websites download phone spy telephone recording system and services, the government announced it would form a social logiciel espion telephone spy media monitoring center “to weed out those telephone spy ebay who use this media to damage the government and people’s reputations” and also targeted at those telephone spy gratuit “bent to cause a security threat to the nation.” Many other spy equipment telephone recorders countries on the continent have variously interfered with citizen’s spy espion telephone internet rights – many times unjustifiably.
The number of requests made by African countries is therefore logiciel espion telephone spy not reflective of the state of online freedom on the continent. This is because download phone spy telephone recording system most governments have unilateral means of dealing with situations they do not like, without spy espion telephone going through multilateral intermediaries. As we are witnessing spy espion telephone, they can enact national legislations, issue uncontested orders logiciel espion telephone spy to local intermediaries, or use extra-legal measures.
With more people on the continent getting online spy equipment telephone recorders (mobile penetration in Africa stands at 63%, internet usage at 16% of the population) download phone spy telephone recording system, governments are likely to infringe more on citizens’ online freedoms telephone spy gear. A challenge then is to promote awareness about protecting and promoting online spy equipment telephone recorders freedoms. There is also a need to continuously promote responsible user behaviour online spy equipment telephone recorders, as not all state efforts to monitor citizens’ actions online telephone spy ebay are unjustifiable.
Download the full OpenNet Africa Brief here.
To learn more about CIPESA’s OpenNet telephone spy ebay Africa project and its monitoring of online freedoms logiciel espion telephone spy, or to share an idea or report a violation, write to: email@example.com telephone spy ebay.